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    The glossary explains technical terminologies in an easy-to-understand format.

    Glossary
    Term Description
    Automatic Frequency Control(AFC) An electronic circcuit used whereby the frequency of an oscillator is automatically maintained within specified limits.
    Auto White Balance Feature on color cameras whereby the camera constantly monitors the light and adjusts its color to maintain white areas.
    Attenuation In general terms, a reduction in signal strength. A decrease or loss in a signal. Reduction of signal magnitude (loss) normally measured in decibels.
    Aspherical Lens A Lens designed with a non spherical shape so that it refracts the light passing through it to either lower the lens aperture so that it passes more light or decreases barrel distortion on wide angle lenses.
    Aspect Ratio The ratio of the picture frame width to the picture frame heght in standard TV systems. It is 4 units horizontal over 3 units vertical.
    Aperture The lens opening that controls the amount of light reaching the pickup device (image). In television optics, it is the effective diameter of the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the photoconductive or photoemitting image pickup sensor
    Angle of View The maximum scene angle that can be seen through a lens.
    Analog A single in which any level is represented by a directly proportional voltage; not digital.
    Alarming The ability of CCTV equipment to respond to an input signal, normally a simple switch closure. The response varies depending on equipment type, most common is for switcher to 'hold' on the camera corresponding to the alarm input.
    Activity Detection A feature of the Generation 3 video multiplexer range that uses video motion detection techniques to improve the camera update times. It also gives a relay closure.
    ALC.(Automatic Level Control) On Al lenses, also known as the peak/aversage control. Adjusting this control allows the auto iris circuity to either take bright spots more into consideration (peak), bringing out detail in bright areas, or less into consideration (average) bringing out detail in shadows.
    ATW Automatically adjusts the white balance in response to varying light conditions.
    Asynchronous Lacking synchronization. In video, a signal is asynchronous when its timing differs from that of the system reference signal. A foreign video signal is asynchronous before a local frame synchronizer treats it.
    Archive Long-term off-line storage. In digital systems, pictures are generally archived onto some form of hard disc, magnetic tape, floppy disk or DAT cartridge, CDROM or DVD.
    ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: Modems attached to twisted pair copper wiring that transmit up to 8 Mbps downstream (to the subscriber) and up to 1Mbps upstream (from the subscriber), depending on line distance, loop plant condition, electrical noise, and technology and implementation options. It is known as Asymmetric because of the different data rates upstream and down stream.
    ANSI American National Standards Institute
    AWG American Wire Gauge. A wire diameter specification based on the American standard. The smaller the AWG number, the larger the wire diameter. Alternatively :- the measure of the diameter of a conductor. AWG is the U.S. standard measuring gauge for certain conductors, including copper. The higher the AWG number the thinner the wire. This measure stems from the fact that the original measurement represented the number of times the wire was run through a wire machine which thus reduced the diameter of the wire. Thus a 24-guage wire was thinner than an 18-guage wire because it was run through a wire machine 6 more times than the 18-guage wire, reducing the overall diameter.
    ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A transporting and switching method in which information does not occur periodically with respect to some reference such as a frame pattern.
    ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A 128-character set thatincludes the upper case and lower-case English alphabet, numerals, special symbols and 32 control codes. A 7-bit binary number represents each character. Therefore, one ASCII-encoded character can be stored in one byte of computer memory.
    AIT Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) a type of tape drive sometimes used for storage of digital video images.
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